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Mikołaj Kopernik

 Kopernik Nicholas Copernicus, an outstanding Polish astronomer, mathematician, doctor, lawyer, interpreter of Italian poetry and an economist, was of a bourgeois background. He was born in Torun, he studied in Cracow, then in Bologne, Padua and Ferrara, where he graduated with a PH.D in Canon Law. After his return to Poland,  Copernicus settled in the town of Lidzbark Warminski as a doctor and a secretary of his uncle, Lukasz Watzenrode, a Warmian bishop. In 1510 Copernicus became a Warmian canon and settled in the town of  Frombork, where he conducted astronomical observations and was writing his main work. During the war with the Order of Teutonic Knights, Copernicus was engaged in defending the town of Olsztyn. In the years 1517-1526 he published his works about monetary reform, he formulated a law called Gresham-Copernicus Law, which says that worse money drives away better money. Copernicus was the first to draw up the heliocentric model of the Solar System (the heliocentric theory). The model was based on three assumptions: planets run on circular circuits around the Sun, the Earth is one of the planets, and the Earth revolves on its axis. The Heliocentric model of Copernicus’ was printed in the work entitled De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the rotation of celestial objects), in Nurnberg, a year after his death. His theory became a basis of the development of Science in the Renaissance period. Great supporters of the theory were Johannes Kepler, Galileo. The ideas included in the theory were later broadened in cosmology by Thomas Digges, in England, and Giordano Bruno, in Italy.

Tłumaczenie M.O


19 February, 1473 – Nicolas Copernicus is born.

1483 – his father dies; Łukasz Watzenrode, Copernicus’ uncle, becomes guardian of the boy

1491-1495 – Copernicus studies at the University of Cracow.

1496 – he studies Law in Bologna.

1501 – a short stay in Poland.

1501 – beginning of medical studies, and continuation of Law studies, in Padua.

1503 – Copernicus becomes Doctor of Canon Law at the University of Ferrara.

1504 – 1510 – he is a doctor and secretary to his uncle, Łukasz Watzenrode, mainly in Lidzbark.

1509 – Copernicus publishes his Latin translation of the Letters written by Theophylactus Simocattes.

1510 – he settles down in Frombork as Warmian canon and presents an outline of the heliocentric theory in the paper entitled “Commentariolus”.

1516 – 1519, and in 1521 – Copernicus is promoted to Administrator of the Chapter in Olsztyn

1517 – he drafts a currency reform.

1519 – his draft of a currency reform is presented in the Sejmik (local parliament) in Toruń.

1520 – 1521 – organisation of defense of the castle in Olsztyn due to the war between Poland the Order of Teutonic Knights.

1526 – Copernicus works out a treatise “Monetae Cudenadae Ratio”.

1515 – 1533 – his major work in astronomy is created, which states that the Earth rotates daily on its axis and the planets circle the Sun.

1533- Pope Clemens VII gets acquainted with Copernicus’ theory.

1536 – Copernicus receives a letter from cardinal Nikolaus Schonberg.

1539 – Rheticus, a professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Wittenberg, comes to Frombork.

1540 – Rheticus publishes a shortened copy of Copernicus’ research results, under the title “Narratio Prima”.

1543 – full version of Copernicus’ work “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” is published in Nuremberg.

24 May, 1543 – Copernicus dies.

1566 – second edition of his work is published in Basle.

1617 – third edition of his work is published in Amsterdam.

1854 – fourth edition is published in Warsaw, both in Latin and in Polish.

Tłumaczenie M.O

Krater Copernicus na KsieżycuNAMED AFTER COPERNICUS

One of the most impressive craters on the visible side of the Moon, large crater on the Mars, planetoid 1322 Copernicus, American satellite OAO-3 Copernicus (launched in 1972), Soviet – Polish satellite Copernicus 500 (launched in 1973).


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